ESO 3. Biology and Geology

1. Organization of Living Matter
  • Levels of organisation in living beings: overview.
  • Bioelements.
  • Biomolecules: organic and inorganic; main types; their role in the human being.
  • Cells: unicellular and multicellular beings; eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells and organisms; components (and their functions) of prokaryotic, plant and animal cells.
  • Overview of the cell activity: nutrition, interaction and reproduction.
  • Supracellular levels of organisation: thalluses, tissues, organs, systems of organs, apparatuses.
2. Nutrition in Humans
  • The meaning of nutrition in living beings: nutrition as an exchange of matter and energy. Humans as heterotrophs.
  • Overview of the nutrition in humans; organ systems involved (digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system and excretory system).
  • The digestive system anatomy: alimentary canal and accessory glands.
  • Stages of the digestive system work: ingestion, digestion (types, stages, enzymes), absorption and elimination.
  • Ventilation and respiration as contributing processes to human nutrition.
  • The respiratory system anatomy: respiratory pathways, lungs, ribcage.
  • The respiratory system physiology: breathing movements, gas exchange, breathing rhythm control.
  • Components of the blood: plasma and blood cells (types and functions).
  • The cardiovascular system: blood vessels (types and roles); the heart (structure and function); cardiovascular circuits.
  • Overview of the lymphatic system.
  • The urinary system: its role in homeostasis and waste disposal; structure and function of the kidney; structure and function of the nephrons; composition of the urine as compared to the blood.
  • The sweat glands: their role in homeostasis and waste disposal; composition of the sweat as compared to the blood.
  • Types of nutrients.
  • Types of foods.
  • Balanced diets; basal metabolic rates.
  • Specific diets: for weight management, for sports, for longevity.
  • Food conservation, manipulation and marketing.
  • Food production enhancement methods and their consequences: fertilisers, pesticides, herbicides, intensive farming, GM foods.
3. Interaction in Humans
  • The meaning of interaction and coordination in multicellular beings.
  • Interaction and coordination in humans: stages involved (from stimuli to receptors); organ systems involved (receptors, nervous system, endocrine system and motor apparatus).
  • Receptors: internal and external; types according to the stimuli detected, how the eye works; how the ear works; the skin as a receptor.
  • The nervous tissue: neurones (and their structure) and glial cells, nerves, nerve impulse, synapse, neurotransmitters.
  • The nervous system: structure, main organs (and their functions), types of nerves, types of nervous circuits.
  • The endocrine system: endocrine glands, hormones (main kinds and their effects), target organs and target cells, stages and types of endocrine coordination, endocrine glands as effectors.
  • Homeostasis: how the human body controls the internal temperature and the levels of fluids and metabolites.
  • The motor apparatus: main muscles and bones; the muscles as effectors.
4. Reproduction in Humans
  • Overall view of the process of reproduction in humans. Key concepts: gonads, gametes, fertilisation, zygote, embryo, fetus, pregnancy, childbirth.
  • Sexual characteristics: primary and secondary. Puberty.
  • Structure of the male and female reproductive systems.
  • Features of the male and female gametes.
  • The menstrual cycle.
  • The reproductive process: fertilisation, implantation, fetal development and childbirth.
  • Hormonal control of the reproduction related activity (gametogenesis, menstrual cycle and nursing).
  • Contraception.
  • Assisted reproduction.
5. Health and Disease
  • Concepts of health and disease.
  • General types of diseases: infectious, hereditary, nutritional, chronic, terminal…
  • Microbial diseases.
  • Infectious diseases occurrence: epidemics and pandemics.
  • Fighting infectious diseases: the immune system, vaccination, antibiotics.
  • Malnutrition, eating disorders and digestive system related diseases.
  • Respiratory system related diseases.
  • Circulatory system related diseases.
  • Good habits to keep a healthy heart.
  • Urinary system related diseases.
  • Degenerative nervous diseases.
  • Drug addictions.
  • Alcohol, tobacco and caffeine.
  • Sensory organs related diseases.
  • Endocrine system related diseases.
  • Sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Cancer.
6. Minerals
  • Organic matter vs. inorganic matter. Geochemical elements.
  • Crystalline matter vs. amorphous matter. Crystals vs. glasses. Minerals vs. mineraloids.
  • Physical properties of the minerals: crystal structure, growth habit, density, hardness, tenacity, cleavage, lustre, colour, streak, others.
  • Classification of the minerals. Some important minerals and their physical properties.
  • Obtaining minerals. Beds and mines.
  • Uses of the minerals. Main metallic ores. Main gemstones.
7. Rocks
  • Concept of rock and how it relates to the concept of mineral.
  • Basic properties of the rocks: structure, mineral composition and age.
  • Sedimentary rocks: formation process, occurrence, strata, major types and main examples.
  • The formation of coal and petroleum.
  • Igneous rocks: formation process and its determining factors, occurrence, major types and main examples.
  • Metamorphic rocks: formation process and its determining factors, occurrence, major types and main examples.
  • The rock cycle.
  • Rocks as resources for human societies.
  • Major lithological units in Spain.

Links List