ESO 1. Science

1. The Earth in the Universe
  • The Astronomy across time.
  • Dimensions and distances in Astronomy.
  • Galaxies and clusters. The Milky Way and the Local Group.
  • The Stars and the constellations.
  • The Solar System: the Sun, the planets, the dwarf planets and the SSSBs.
  • The movements of the Earth and their effects.
  • The Moon and its phases.
  • The eclipses.
  • The Ecosphere.
2. Matter
  • Matter, quantities, measuring devices and the International System of Units.
  • Mass, volume, density and temperature.
  • Pure substances, homogeneous mixtures and heterogeneous mixtures.
  • Separation of mixtures: sieving, decanting, filtering and distilling.
  • The particle theory. Atoms, molecules and crystals.
  • Chemical elements. The Periodic Table. Chemical symbols, atomic number, atomic mass.
  • Chemical compounds. Molecular formulas and structural representations of molecules.
  • The properties of solids, liquids and gases explained through the particle theory.
  • The changes of state explained through the particle theory.
  • Expansion and contraction by heat explained through the particle theory.
3. The Atmosphere and the Weather
  • Origin, evolution and composition of the Earth's atmosphere.
  • Structure of the Earth's atmosphere.
  • Air pressure.
  • Weather: types of clouds, cyclones, anticyclones, wind and precipitations.
4. The Water and the Hydrosphere
  • The water in the Earth: occurrence, water bodies, natural aqueous mixtures vs. distilled water, continental waters vs. marine waters.
  • The water cycle and its reservoirs.
  • Seawater movements.
  • The molecule of water.
  • The density of water.
  • Water and life: the roles of water in living beings and the adaptations of living beings with regards to water.
5. The Earth's Crust, the Rocks and the Minerals
  • Structure of the Geosphere.
  • Earth's crust: types and composition.
  • Minerals: concept, occurrence and properties.
  • Rocks: rock cycle, main types and uses.
6. Organization of Living Matter
  • Vital functions.
  • Bioelements and biomolecules.
  • Cells: structure, main types, vital functions, discovery; the cellular theory; unicellular and multicellular beings.
  • Levels of organisation in multicellular beings.
  • Classification of living beings: morphological criteria vs. kinship; the five kingdoms; taxonomical categories.
7. Prokaryotes, Protozoa, Algae and Fungi
  • Prokaryotes: bacteria: occurrence, diversity (ecology, nutrition), cyanbacteria, how they affect human life.
  • Protozoa: common features, differences with animals; diversity.
  • Algae: common features, differences with plants; diversity.
  • Fungi: common features, differences with plants and animals; diversity; classification; anatomy of mushrooms; common mushrooms.
8. The Plant Kingdom
  • Common features.
  • Main morphological types.
  • Main organs.
  • Main groups: bryophytes, pterydophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms.
  • Nutrition: photosynthesis vs. respiration; role in the carbon cycle.
  • Basic interaction mechanisms.
  • Reproduction in angiosperms.
9. The Animal Kingdom
  • Common features.
  • Nutrition: type, systems of organs involved, role in the carbon cycle.
  • Basic interaction mechanisms.
  • Kinds of reproduction: asexual and sexual.
  • Main groups of invertebrates: sponges, cnidarians, annelids, molluscs, arthropods and equinoderms.
  • Main groups of vertebrates: fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.

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