1. Forces and Movements
- Forces: concept and measurement.
- Effects of forces: deformations and changes in movement. Driving force and force of friction.
- The gravitational force; mass vs. weight.
- Changes of position. Speed and distance/time graphs. Acceleration and speed/time graphs.
- Concepts of work and energy.
- Types of material systems with regards to the exchanges of energy and matter.
- Forms of energy: kinetic, gravitational potential, elastic potential, chemical, electric, nuclear, heat, light.
- Transfers and transformations of energy.
- Changes caused by transfers of energy; reversible and irreversible changes.
- Energy in human societies: foods, fossil fuels, nuclear, biomass, aeolian, hydraulic, solar.
- Types of power plants.
3. Heat and Temperature
- Temperature vs. heat.
- Measuring temperature.
- Transmission of heat by conduction; conductors vs. insulators.
- Transmission of heat by convection; convection in the troposphere; convection in the asthenosphere.
- Transmission of heat by radiation.
- Light is the transmission of EM waves.
- Transmission of light: speed and pathway.
- Behaviour of materials with regards to light: transparent, translucent and opaque.
- Reflection and refraction of light.
- Sound is the transmission of mechanical waves.
- The properties of sound: loudness and pitch.
- Measuring sound.
- The transmission of sound: speed, reflections.
6. Chemical Changes
- Physical changes vs. chemical changes.
- Chemical equations. Reactants vs. products.
- Conservation of mass in chemical reactions: the law of constant proportions; balancing chemical equations.
- Energy changes during chemical reactions.
- Simple chemical reactions: metals with non-metals, oxidation, combustion, formation of acids, formation of salts.
7. Cells and Vital Functions
- Structure and function of the main organic and inorganic biomolecules.
- Main types of cells; organelles and cellular regions.
- Cellular nutrition. Anabolism and catabolism. Autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition. Photosynthesis and respiration.
- Cellular interaction: examples from the five kingdoms.
- Cellular reproduction: main general types.
- The vital functions under the scope of the process of natural selection.
8. Nutrition in Living Beings
- The role of nutrition in the living beings.
- Types of nutrition in living beings: heterotrophs vs. autotrophs; phototrophs vs. chemotrophs.
- Animal nutrition (I): the digestive process.
- Animal nutrition (II): the digestive systems.
- Animal nutrition (III): the respiratory mechanisms.
- Animal nutrition (IV): the circulatory systems.
- Animal nutrition (V): the excretory systems.
- Nutrition in fungi.
- Nutrition in plants and algae.
9. Interaction and Coordination in Living Beings
- The role of interaction in the living beings.
- Interaction in animals (I): stimuli and receptors.
- Interaction in animals (II): the need of a coordination process; the nervous systems.
- Interaction in animals (III): effectors.
- Interaction in plants: tropisms and nastics.
10. Reproduction in Living Beings
- The role of reproduction in the living beings.
- Types of reproduction.
- Asexual reproduction in animals. Examples.
- Sexual reproduction in animals. Embryonic development.
- Asexual reproduction in plants. Examples.
- Sexual reproduction in plants. The flower.
11. The Ecosphere and the Ecosystems
- Why is there Life on Earth.
- Biomes: concept, main types on Earth.
- Ecosystems: concept and components.
- Habitats and ecological niches.
- Land ecosystems: main types and features. The formation of soil.
- Aquatic ecosystems: main types and features.
- Anthropogenic ecosystems: main types and features.
- Feeding interactions: producers, consumers and decomposers; food chains and food webs; trophic pyramids.
- Other biotic interactions: interspecific and intraspecific.
- Major human influences in the ecosystems.