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ESO 2. Science

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1. Forces and Movements
  • Forces: concept and measurement.
  • Effects of forces: deformations and changes in movement. Driving force and force of friction.
  • The gravitational force; mass vs. weight.
  • Changes of position. Speed and distance/time graphs. Acceleration and speed/time graphs.
2. Energy
  • Concepts of work and energy.
  • Types of material systems with regards to the exchanges of energy and matter.
  • Forms of energy: kinetic, gravitational potential, elastic potential, chemical, electric, nuclear, heat, light.
  • Transfers and transformations of energy.
  • Changes caused by transfers of energy; reversible and irreversible changes.
  • Energy in human societies: foods, fossil fuels, nuclear, biomass, aeolian, hydraulic, solar.
  • Types of power plants.
3. Heat and Temperature
  • Temperature vs. heat.
  • Measuring temperature.
  • Transmission of heat by conduction; conductors vs. insulators.
  • Transmission of heat by convection; convection in the troposphere; convection in the asthenosphere.
  • Transmission of heat by radiation.
4. Light
  • Light is the transmission of EM waves.
  • Transmission of light: speed and pathway.
  • Behaviour of materials with regards to light: transparent, translucent and opaque.
  • Reflection and refraction of light.
5. Sound
  • Sound is the transmission of mechanical waves.
  • The properties of sound: loudness and pitch.
  • Measuring sound.
  • The transmission of sound: speed, reflections.
6. Chemical Changes
  • Physical changes vs. chemical changes.
  • Chemical equations. Reactants vs. products.
  • Conservation of mass in chemical reactions: the law of constant proportions; balancing chemical equations.
  • Energy changes during chemical reactions.
  • Simple chemical reactions: metals with non-metals, oxidation, combustion, formation of acids, formation of salts.
7. Cells and Vital Functions
  • Structure and function of the main organic and inorganic biomolecules.
  • Main types of cells; organelles and cellular regions.
  • Cellular nutrition. Anabolism and catabolism. Autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition. Photosynthesis and respiration.
  • Cellular interaction: examples from the five kingdoms.
  • Cellular reproduction: main general types.
  • The vital functions under the scope of the process of natural selection.
8. Nutrition in Living Beings
  • The role of nutrition in the living beings.
  • Types of nutrition in living beings: heterotrophs vs. autotrophs; phototrophs vs. chemotrophs.
  • Animal nutrition (I): the digestive process.
  • Animal nutrition (II): the digestive systems.
  • Animal nutrition (III): the respiratory mechanisms.
  • Animal nutrition (IV): the circulatory systems.
  • Animal nutrition (V): the excretory systems.
  • Nutrition in fungi.
  • Nutrition in plants and algae.
9. Interaction and Coordination in Living Beings
  • The role of interaction in the living beings.
  • Interaction in animals (I): stimuli and receptors.
  • Interaction in animals (II): the need of a coordination process; the nervous systems.
  • Interaction in animals (III): effectors.
  • Interaction in plants: tropisms and nastics.
10. Reproduction in Living Beings
  • The role of reproduction in the living beings.
  • Types of reproduction.
  • Asexual reproduction in animals. Examples.
  • Sexual reproduction in animals. Embryonic development.
  • Asexual reproduction in plants. Examples.
  • Sexual reproduction in plants. The flower.
11. The Ecosphere and the Ecosystems
  • Why is there Life on Earth.
  • Biomes: concept, main types on Earth.
  • Ecosystems: concept and components.
  • Habitats and ecological niches.
  • Land ecosystems: main types and features. The formation of soil.
  • Aquatic ecosystems: main types and features.
  • Anthropogenic ecosystems: main types and features.
  • Feeding interactions: producers, consumers and decomposers; food chains and food webs; trophic pyramids.
  • Other biotic interactions: interspecific and intraspecific.
  • Major human influences in the ecosystems.

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