1. Cellular Functions
Membrane transport, cell nutrition and cell reproduction in an easy-to-understand language.
Animation showing the basics behind the diffusion of chemicals in solutions.
Osmosis is a special type of diffusion which involves movement of water molecules only. Learn about it through this animation.
Advanced video on osmosis, explaining everything you ever wanted to know about it. You may need to switch to full screen mode to prevent overstretching.
Learn about passive transport through an animation that shows how membrane proteins can help specific chemicals to cross by without consuming energy.
Learn about the sodium-potassium pump, the main active transport mechanism.
Animation showing how enzymes catalyse biochemical reactions.
Animation showing how lysosmes are produced and work breaking down big molecular structures for a later use in the cellular metabolism.
Watch this animation to learn the basics of the cell cycle.
A good and comprehensive explanation of the different stages of the cell cycle.
Animation showing a detailed view of the cell cycle, including the various steps of cell division.
Step by step animation of mitosis and cytokinesis.
Animation showing clearly the different pathways and outcomes of meiosis and mitosis.
2. Heredity and Transmission
From the basics to the hottest current topics: a vast bank of easy to follow learning resources on Genetics.
Excellent full lesson on DNA with interactive activities and good coverage of the following topics: genetics, discovery of DNA, Human Genome Project, Genetic Engineering, and implications and ethics.
Simple interactive activity to learn the structure of DNA by matching nucleotides.
An step by step overview on the basic Genetics concepts from BBC Bitesize.
The basic rules for translating a gene into a protein are laid out in the Universal Genetic Code. To see how this works, try it yourself in this interactive activity.
Great simple animation showing how genes are expressed by producing proteins.
Verifying a person's gender may be harder than you think. Find out why…
The Human Genome Project was launched in 1990 to learn how the 3.2 billion base pairs contained in the human genome are ordered. But, what are the benefits of this?
At-home personal genomics kits are available and affordable, but how relevant are the results?
In the last few years, DNA evidence has started to play a big part in many nations' criminal justice systems. Learn how DNA evidence is scientifically achieved.
Learn how genetic manipulation of the most eaten food in the world can help over two billion people to survive.
Now it's official: genes from genetically modified corn have escaped into wild varieties in rural Mexico.
Learn how a dead simple technique, based on the use of special DNA-cutting enzymes, could immunize people against HIV.
A differrent approach to gene sequencing proves cheaper, faster and useful in medicine.
20 May 2010: scientists in the US have succeeded in developing the first living cell to be controlled entirely by synthetic DNA.
If there's one thing scientists have a knack for, it's turning seemingly innocent things into horrifying specters of terror. Here are some examples.
Simple and clear animation showing the main steps to take in animal cloning.
Simple and easy to understand introduction to cloning in plants, animals and humans.
Today, after more than a decade since Dolly, human cloning remains in its infancy and under governmental restraints. Nevertheless, science is headed in that direction. Learn how the inevitable human cloning future will be.
Learn how clonig techniques could help to regenerate extinct species.
Scientists in Dubai say they have created the world's first cloned camel.
Excellent and very comprehensive animation showing everything you need to know about human stem cells.
3. The Evolution of Living Matter
A most amazing collection of essays explaining everything you want to know about evolution and more. Don't miss the first one, Introduction to Evolutionary Biology for a great overview on the topic. Also available is the full text of Darwin's The Origin of Species.
An even better and wider collection of articles to tell you everything you ever wanted to know about Evolution and never dared to ask. The Evolution 101 course is just the perfect introduction to the topic, nicely complemented with good quality images.
Special selection of articles on Evolution from Discover magazine.
Google Earth file showing Charles Darwin's voyage on the Beagle. Much more information in the author's website.
Series of podcasts produced by the U.S. National Public Radio on a variety of Darwin's related topics.
Wikipedia's article on Charles R. Darwin.
Learn about the three simple ingredients that drive evolution.
Compilation of especially elegant and enlightening examples of evolution.
Top 10 in-depth articles about evolution from New Scientist.
Wikipedia's article on Evolution.
Wikipedia's article on Natural Selection.
Learn why creatures which reproduce sexually, such as humans, have not been overrun by those which reproduce asexually.
Apple-trees' autumn red colours could have evolved to warn insects, a study says.
Opponents of evolution want to make a place for creationism by tearing down real science, but their arguments don't hold up. Read why.
The History of the Universe according to Science and to creationists.
4. Natural History of the Earth
Very simple animation showing how a fish can turn into a fossil.
We now know that the Earth is some 4.5 by old. But what did they think in the past?
Learn about the techniques of radiometric dating.
The state of the art in geochronology. Latest version is always available at the International Commission on Stratigraphy website.
Google Earth file showing continental drift in the last 600 million years.
Wikipedia's article on the History of the Earth.
An amazing video experiment in scale, condensing 4.6 billion years of History into a minute.
Simple video that shows how Life, branching off of simple unicellular bacteria, evolved up to current forms of Life.
Seven of the most important fossils that show evolution in action.
Learn how new studies on old fossils have turned Hurdia victoria into a possible ancestor of all arthropods.
News of the 2006 discovery of the huge Turiasaurus riodevensis in Teruel, Spain.
The original article that presents to the world the astonishing discovery of the Tanis fossil deposit, claimed to have been formed in about an hour time, as a result of the Chicxulub meteorite impact, some 3000 km away.
Science magazine take on the news of the Tanis fossil deposit finding, and the claims of being a record of the sudden killing-out of the dinosaurs.
If you suddenly find yourself in the company of paleoanthropologists or swamped by news of the latest hominid fossil find, there's a good chance you'll hear the phrase last common ancestor. But what is this enigmatic person or thing?
A great brief review of the History of Paleoanthropology.
Evolutionary trends in hominins: what has changed in our body since we started walking in two legs.
The History of Paleoanthropology in photos, starting with the discovery of the first Neanderthal fossils, back in 1856.
Site devoted to the study of human evolution.
BBC's fact pages about hominids.
The assessment of the 4.4-million-year-old animal called Ardipithecus ramidus, that may be a direct ancestor to our species, has been reported by researchers.
From primates (and beyond) to Homo sapiens sapiens.
When we stare at gorillas and chimpanzees, we see aspects of ourselves: the bestial, the innocent, the savage and the adorable. And the truth is that we actually have a great deal in common with apes. Learn how much and what makes us different.
Through history, as natural selection played its part in the development of modern man, many of the useful functions and parts of the human body become unnecessary. What is most fascinating is that many of these parts of the body still remain in some form so we can see the progress of evolution. This list covers the ten most significant evolutionary changes that have taken place, leaving signs behind them.
Can Darwin's insights explain human behaviour and be used profitably by policy makers?
5. Plant Physiology
Very detailed interactive animation showing how transpiration takes place in plants and which are the factors that have an influence on it. You can also read the lesson text.
Learn how to make a potometer and to use it to measure plant transpiration.
Very comprehensive animation showing how xylem sap is pumped from the roots to the leaves of a plant.
Flowering plants reproduce themselves by producing seeds, which provide the plants with a way to spread out and grow in new places, sometimes a long way from the parent. Learn how.
This animations illustrates the structures of a flower, plant breeding, cross pollination and making crosses.
6. Dynamics of Ecosystems
Learn about chemicals in the environment, water pollution, air pollution and climate change through this website full of links and resources.
Very comprehensive article at Encyclopaedia Britannica online on the concept of biosphere, the diversity of Life, resources of the biosphere and environmental conditions.
BBC guide to Climate Change: lots of resources that include reviews, analysis, news and more.
Learn what global warming is, what causes it, what its current effects are and what the future effects could be.
Very comprehensive article at Encyclopaedia Britannica online on the concept of global warming, its causes and potential effects, climate research and climate policy.
Know the global warming effects around the globe, understand how these impacts are produced and learn which actions can be taken to stop them.
Two maps from NationalGeographic.com that show how temperatures are rising and how precipitations are dropping out.
Google Earth file showing how climate change and global temperature rises could affect our world over the next 100 years.
A game where you are president of the European Nations. You must tackle climate change and stay popular enough with the voters to remain in office.
Another game about helping the community reach some specific climate goals. You have to create a climate plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by a certain percentage in a certain time frame. Your plans can include setting up alternative energy sources, reducing human consumption etc.
Sceptics have long argued that there are other explanations for climate change other than man-made CO2 and here we look at some of the arguments put forward by those who believe that global warming is all a hoax.
This title may come as a bit of a surprise, so too might the fact that the warmest year recorded globally was not in 2008 or 2007, but in 1998. But it is true.
What are some of the reasons why "climate sceptics" dispute the evidence that human activities are bringing potentially dangerous changes to the Earth's climate, ant their counter-arguments?
Where you can check on the latest status of the ozone layer over the South Pole.
Follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process.
Video teaching about how water is wasted and what we can do to prevent this problem in our houses.
Google Earth file showing information about the 50 worst oil spills, from tanker accidents and drilling operations, as well as a number of other notable spills.
7. The Earth's Internal Energy
What, why and how of the earthquakes.
The basic scientific facts behind the earthquakes.
A very comprehensive review on earthquakes, from their causes to their effects. With photos and a video.
The speed of the Pacific Plate, the distance Japan's main island was displaced, and other facts and figures about the 11 March 2011 earthquake help to put this event into perspective.
An 8.9-magnitude earthquake hit off the east coast of Japan on 11 March 2011. The quake, one of the largest in History, triggered a 10 meter tall tsunami that battered Japan's coast, killing thousands and sweeping away cars, homes, buildings, and boats.
Google Map that shows the magnitude and depth of each recorded Japanese quake since March 11th, 2011. The size of the displayed polygons reflects the magnitude of each individual earthquake and its colour reflects the depth.
Google Map displaying earthquakes around the world that have occurred in the last 24 hours. On first load, the map will animate through the mapped earthquakes, starting from the most recent. You can stop the animation at any time simply by pressing the forward or back buttons. The information window for each quake displays the size of the earthquake and the time of occurrence.
Google Earth file showing the earthquakes that have taken place in the last two weeks around the world.
Types and structure; the lava and its flow.
An easy to understand on-line book by the U.S. Geological Survey.
Photo gallery of some of the biggest blasts in History.
Stunning photo set taken by a team of scientists who stepped onto the shore of the lava lake boiling in the depths of Nyiragongo Crater, in the Great Lakes region of Africa.
Excellent lesson on plate tectonics with interactive activities and good coverage of the following topics: Earth's structure, plate tectonics and plate boundaries.
Learn how the Geosphere is structured by density; know the name of some of its parts and forms.
What are they and how do they behave.
A simple starting point for exploring plate tectonics.
A great set of investigations and visualizations at Exploring Earth online book.
A comprehensive on-line book by the U.S. Geological Survey.
Have a look at the state of the continents in 250 my time.
Google Earth's file showing the locations of the plates and their boundaries in the Earth's crust.
Learn the main features of the three types of rocks.
Visualize how a basalt rock is formed after the cooling of lava at Exploring Earth online book.
Visualize how a metamorphic rock is formed after heavy pressure at Exploring Earth online book.
8. The Earth's External Energy
Mechanical, chemical and biological weathering.
What is it, how can it be and which are its results.
Landform picture gallery at About.com. With photos and basic data.
Visualize valleys, cliffs, caverns and more at Exploring Earth online book.
Collection of 13 stunning images of some of the world's most impressive and beautiful glaciers, captured from space by astronauts and satellites.
Glacier picture gallery at About.com. With photos and basic data.
Extensive article, with images and videos, to teach you about the formation of dunes, their types, and their ecological features.
Learn the basics of soils.
Learn which are the factors than condition the formation and evolution of the soils.
Visualize the depositing of sediments in a sea-shore at Exploring Earth online book.
Visualize how a sedimentary rock is formed out of rock grains at Exploring Earth online book.