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ESO 4. Biology and Geology

1. Cellular Functions
The cell membrane

The cell membrane

Learn the structure, behaviour and biological meaning of the cell's plasma membrane.

Diffusion

Diffusion

Learn how the molecules of fluids move freely, and which force drives their motion.

Osmosis

Osmosis

Learn how the process of osmosis can even out the concentrations of two solutions to either side of a partially permeable membrane.

Passive transport

Passive transport

Learn how some proteins of the plasma membrane can allow a free movement of molecules in and out the cell.

Active transport (I)

Active transport (I)

Learn how some proteins of the plasma membrane can pump certain substances through the membrane against the concentration gradient with some contribution of energy.

Active transport (II)

Active transport (II)

A more detailed view of the process of active transport through the Na/K pump example.

Endocytosis and exocytosis (I)

Endocytosis and exocytosis (I)

Learn how plasma membrane sacs can help to transport materials in bulk in and out the cell.

Endocytosis and exocytosis (II)

Endocytosis and exocytosis (II)

A more detailed view on the role of the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus and the cell's membrane lipid bilayer in the processes of exocytosis and endocytosis.

Mitosis (I)

Mitosis (I)

The mitotic process explained through an animated movie. [Some key words: thread, coil, unwind, spindle, fiber].

Mitosis (II)

Mitosis (II)

The central stages of mitosis in a microscopic movie.

Mitosis (III)

Mitosis (III)

Another animated movie on mitosis, this time silent.

Meiosis

Meiosis

The meiotic process explained through an animated movie.

2. Heredity and Transmission
Mendel's gene theory explained

Mendel's gene theory explained

A quite aged but still great and clear explanation of Mendel's works.

Genetics 101 Part 1: What are genes?

Genetics 101 Part 1: What are genes?

On DNA, genes and chromosomes.

Produced by 23andMe

Genetics 101 Part 2: What are SNPs?

Genetics 101 Part 2: What are SNPs?

On molecular-level mutations and inherited variation.

Produced by 23andMe

Genetics 101 Part 3: Where do your genes come from?

Genetics 101 Part 3: Where do your genes come from?

On chromosomes and gender inheritance.

Produced by 23andMe

Genetics 101 Part 4: What is phenotype?

Genetics 101 Part 4: What is phenotype?

On the phenotype and its genetic and environmental influences.

Produced by 23andMe

From DNA to protein

From DNA to protein

This animation shows how proteins are made in the cell from the information in the DNA code.

Produced by YourGenome

Code for Life (I)

Code for Life (I)

Beginning more than 3.5 billion years ago, a tiny, primitive molecule encoded instructions, that it passed to its children, who passed it to their children and so on, all the way down through time to all living things today. Watch the story of DNA.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

Code for Life (II)

Code for Life (II)

Second part of the series.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

Code for Life (III)

Code for Life (III)

Third part of the series.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

Code for Life (IV)

Code for Life (IV)

Fourth part of the series.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

Code for Life (V)

Code for Life (V)

Fifth part of the series.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

Code for Life (VI)

Code for Life (VI)

Sixth part of the series.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

Genetic engineering (I)

Genetic engineering (I)

Genetic engineering using plasmids put simple.

Genetic engineering (II)

Genetic engineering (II)

Comprehensive video on the basic process of genetic engineering: creating recombinant DNA from different species.

18 genetically modified organisms you don't know about

18 genetically modified organisms you don't know about

From Glow in the Dark Rabbit to Anti-Cancer Purple Tomatoes, here are 18 Genetically Modified Organisms You Don't Know About.

Gene therapy

Gene therapy

See how a virus can be recombined with human DNA to save the life of a person.

CRISPR: Gene editing and beyond

CRISPR: Gene editing and beyond

The CRISPR-Cas9 system has revolutionised gene-editing, but cutting DNA isn’t all it can do. From turning gene expression on and off to fluorescently tagging particular sequences, this animation explores some of the exciting possibilities of CRISPR.

NatureMehods

DNA matching

DNA matching

DNA matching is used as a tool in a variety of applications, from paternity determinations to criminal forensics. Learn how it is done.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

DNA fingerprinting

DNA fingerprinting

A closer look to the DNA matching technique.

High speed gene sequencing

High speed gene sequencing

Commercial video from a firm that has developed a high speed DNA sequencer.

Produced by Helicos Bioscience Corp.

Nuclear transfer (I)

Nuclear transfer (I)

Animation showing how an egg-cell is enucleated and then provided with a diploid nucleus taken from a somatic cell.

Nuclear transfer (II)

Nuclear transfer (II)

Watch how the nuclear transfer process is actually performed.

Stem cells

Stem cells

This animation explains what stem cells are, their types, and their potential for treating disease. It then shows how hematopoietic stem cell therapy is used to treat leukemia.

Nucleus Medical Media

3. The Evolution of Living Matter
On the origin of species: first paragraphs

On the origin of species: first paragraphs

Listen to the starter paragraphs of the most influential book in the History of Science, Darwin's "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life".

Evolution primer: who was Charles Darwin?

Evolution primer: who was Charles Darwin?

Discover how Darwin's curiosity, his passion for natural history, his voyage on the Beagle, and his use of the scientific process led to the publication of his groundbreaking book.

Facts of evolution (I)

Facts of evolution (I)

Examining the idea of common descent.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

Facts of evolution (II)

Facts of evolution (II)

Examining transitional fossils, progression in fossil sequences, vestigial organs, geographical trails, homologous organs and "bad-designed" organs.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

Facts of evolution (III)

Facts of evolution (III)

Examining extinctions, the fossil record, the concept of species, hybrids and speciation.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

Facts of evolution (IV)

Facts of evolution (IV)

Examining evolution rates, embrionary development and common biochemistry.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

Facts of evolution (V)

Facts of evolution (V)

Examining genome and protein comparisons between species and transposones.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

Facts of evolution (VI)

Facts of evolution (VI)

Examining pseudogenes and endogenous retroviruses.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

Mechanisms of evolution (I)

Mechanisms of evolution (I)

Examining how genetic variety arises in biological populations.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

Mechanisms of evolution (II)

Mechanisms of evolution (II)

Examining how natural selection acting upon biological diversity drives evolution.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

Natural selection made easy

Natural selection made easy

Well explained overview of the process of natural selection and how old Darwin's theory itself has had to adapt to survive under the new discoveries of Genetics.

The Theory of Evolution made easy

The Theory of Evolution made easy

Learn some evidence that makes evolution an accepted fact among biologists all over the world.

Evolution primer: how do we know evolution happens?

Evolution primer: how do we know evolution happens?

Learn about evolution through the fossil remains of whales' land-dwelling ancestors

Evolution primer: how does evolution really work?

Evolution primer: how does evolution really work?

Travel to Ecuador to see how the process of natural selection operates in populations of rainforest hummingbirds.

Evolution primer: why does Evolution matter now?

Evolution primer: why does Evolution matter now?

Learn how tuberculosis is transmitted and why the evolution of multi-drug resistant strains of TB in Russia affects us all.

Gradual evolution

Gradual evolution

The odds that such a complex organ as the human eye could have showed up all at once, and just randomly, are extremely low, creationists say. But the chances for it to appear gradually, step by step, are really high, as this video explains.

Gradual evolution of a complex organ: the eye

Gradual evolution of a complex organ: the eye

But can something like the human eye, that seems to only have any sense once it was fully developed, really appear by gradual evolution? Richard Dawkins explains how.

Proof of evolution that you can find on your body

Proof of evolution that you can find on your body

You can see the result of the evolutionary process in the vestigial structures in each of our bodies, like the third molars that no longer fit in our mouths; for a few other examples, check out the video.

Vox Observatory

Evolution primer: isn't Evolution just a theory?

Evolution primer: isn't Evolution just a theory?

Learn the difference between the scientific and everyday use of key vocabulary words.

Evolution primer: why is Evolution controversial anyway?

Evolution primer: why is Evolution controversial anyway?

Consider different points of view, as scientists, religious leaders, and college students share their opinions about evolution, science, and religious faith.

Creation science made easy

Creation science made easy

Learn why creation science is not science, and why the creation theory is not even a theory.

4. Natural History of the Earth
The story of the Earth made easy

The story of the Earth made easy

Learn how a geological picture can be related to geological events that happened in the past, and how all this can help us to ellucidate the story of our planet.

The age of our world made easy

The age of our world made easy

Learn the basics on the dating techniques used in Paleontology.

Carbon dating

Carbon dating

Find out how carbon is used to determine how long ago an organism had died.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

Protoplanetary disk

Protoplanetary disk

Accretion in a protoplanetary disk.

Paleo Earth

Paleo Earth

Watch the evolution of the Eath's continents thoughout the Phanerozoic eon.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

The origin of Life made easy

The origin of Life made easy

Learn how could living matter come from non-living sludge.

Life to Eve (I)

Life to Eve (I)

From the primordial organic soup to the first vertebrates.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

Life to Eve (II)

Life to Eve (II)

From the first amphibians to the extinction of the dinosaurs.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

Life to Eve (III)

Life to Eve (III)

From the extinction of the dinosaurs to the first modern humans.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

Highway of Life (I)

Highway of Life (I)

Great animation showing how Life on Earth evolved, diversified and increased in complexity from the primordial organic soup to the first fish.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

Highway of Life (II)

Highway of Life (II)

Great animation showing how Life on Earth evolved, diversified and increased in complexity from the first fish up to humans.

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

Evolution of vertebrates

Evolution of vertebrates

Nice animation showing the evolutionary lineage that lead from the fish to hominids.

Dinosaur bird bones

Dinosaur bird bones

Some hollow bones are providing solid new evidence of how birds evolved from dinosaurs.

Produced by ScienCentral

Evolution of human ancestry 101

Evolution of human ancestry 101

Wonderful animated short movie about the history of human lineage.

Evolution primer: did humans evolve?

Evolution primer: did humans evolve?

Examine the fossil and molecular evidence that supports the evolution of humans from earlier primate ancestors.

Human evolution made easy

Human evolution made easy

Learn how scientists came up with the idea of human evolution from the apes, and which are the fundamental patterns in human evolution.

Human ancestry made easy

Human ancestry made easy

This video traces our migration out of Africa and explains, through DNA evidence, how humans colonized the world.

5. Plant Physiology
Zoom into a leaf

Zoom into a leaf

Watch the surface and the inside of a leaf progressively magnified by an electron microscope.

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis

Learn how photosynthesis is performed inside the chloroplasts.

Produced by Britannica.com

Respiration

Respiration

Learn if and when a plant respires, absorbing CO2 and producing O2.

Produced by Britannica.com

Plant fertilization

Plant fertilization

Learn how male and female gametes fuse in plants and what happens afterwards.

Produced by Britannica.com

Double fertilization in flowering plants

Double fertilization in flowering plants

Detailed view of the process of fertilization in plants.

Reproduction of the pine tree

Reproduction of the pine tree

Learn the specificities of the reproduction process in the gymnosperms.

Produced by Britannica.com

Plant hormones and growth

Plant hormones and growth

Learn how plant hormones control their growth towards the light.

Produced by Britannica.com

6. Dynamics of Ecosystems
Global Warming

Global Warming

Global Warming is a hot topic. This video looks at the evidence and focuses on these two questions: "is the Earth getting warmer?" and "what are the effects of Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere?"

Produced by Cassiopeia Project

The truth about global warming

The truth about global warming

A simple and effective way to see how human activity relates to global warming.

Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis

Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis

The IPCC has produced a video on its Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). The first part on the Working Group I contribution to AR5 is now available.

Produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Ask for a better world

Ask for a better world

Global warming: when you feel it, it's already too late.

Produced by Ponto de Criação

Teens, frogs and climate change

Teens, frogs and climate change

With frogs and other amphibians already dying in large numbers, a group of teenagers is joining other amateur scientists to gather information on the problem.

Produced by ScienCentral

Early birds and springtime

Early birds and springtime

A growing body of evidence shows that birds are nesting earlier due to global warming, with potentially harmful consequences.

Produced by ScienCentral

Coal combustion and acid rain

Coal combustion and acid rain

Watch how sulphur-rich coal is a major source of acid rain and what can be done to mitigate its damage.

Produced by Britannica.com

Analysing acid rain

Analysing acid rain

Visit this research station in the Black Forest, Germany, to watch rainwater being tested for acidity.

Produced by Britannica.com

7. The Earth's Internal Energy
Kilauea

Kilauea

Located in Hawaii, Kīlauea is one of the most active volcanoes in the world.

National Geographic

Pillow lavas (I)

Pillow lavas (I)

Pillow lavas are formed in the sea floor when the erupted rolling lava solidifies only superficially.

Pillow lavas (II)

Pillow lavas (II)

Watch the different shapes of the pillow lavas near an oceanic hotspot.

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