ESO 3 B & G 2

Nutrition in Humans

What to Learn

  • The meaning of nutrition in living beings: nutrition as an exchange of matter and energy. Humans as heterotrophs.
  • Overview of the nutrition in humans; organ systems involved (digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system and excretory system).
  • The digestive system anatomy: alimentary canal and accessory glands.
  • Stages of the digestive system work: ingestion, digestion (types, stages, enzymes), absorption and elimination.
  • Ventilation and respiration as contributing processes to human nutrition.
  • The respiratory system anatomy: respiratory pathways, lungs, ribcage.
  • The respiratory system physiology: breathing movements, gas exchange, breathing rhythm control.
  • Components of the blood: plasma and blood cells (types and functions).
  • The cardiovascular system: blood vessels (types and roles); the heart (structure and function); cardiovascular circuits.
  • Overview of the lymphatic system.
  • The urinary system: its role in homeostasis and waste disposal; structure and function of the kidney; structure and function of the nephrons; composition of the urine as compared to the blood.
  • The sweat glands: their role in homeostasis and waste disposal; composition of the sweat as compared to the blood.
  • Types of nutrients.
  • Types of foods.
  • Balanced diets; basal metabolic rates.
  • Specific diets: for weight management, for sports, for longevity.
  • Food conservation, manipulation and marketing.
  • Food production enhancement methods and their consequences: fertilisers, pesticides, herbicides, intensive farming, GM foods.

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