ESO 4 B&G 1

Cellular Functions

What to Learn

  • The biological meaning of the cellular nutrition, reproduction and interaction.
  • Cellular nutrition (I): membrane transport of substances.
  • Cellular nutrition (II): enzymes.
  • Cellular nutrition (III): the metabolism; anabolism and catabolism in autotrophic and heterotrophic beings.
  • Cellular reproduction (I): the cell nucleus: DNA, chromatin, chromosomes; haploid and diploid cells.
  • Cellular reproduction (II): the cell cycle.
  • Cellular reproduction (III): cancer.
  • Cellular reproduction (IV): the stages of mitosis; its meaning and role in eukaryotic cells.
  • Cellular reproduction (V): meiosis: main events; its meaning and role in eukaryotes' gametogenesis.
  • Cellular interaction: biological meaning and examples in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Key Information

Vocabulary: Cellular Reproduction
Genetic material In all cells the genetic material is DNA bound to proteins and organised in chromosomes. Bacteria have one chromosome, while humans have 46 in each cell. Its function is to store, express and transmit to the offspring the instructions that tell how every cell and living being will be self-constructed and how will they work.
Mitosis Cells with more than one chromosome, once they've synthesised a full copy of the whole set of chromosomes, have to carefully organise their division in order to produce two daughter-cells with exactly the same genetic information. Mitosis is the complex process whereby most eukaryotic cells tackle such a task.
Mind Map: Osmosis
Source
Mind Map: Active transport
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Mind Map: Enzymes in industry
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Movies and Animations

Membrane Transport
The cell membrane
The cell membrane

Learn the structure, behaviour and biological meaning of the cell's plasma membrane.

Diffusion
Diffusion

Learn how the molecules of fluids move freely, and which force drives their motion.

Osmosis
Osmosis

Learn how the process of osmosis can even out the concentrations of two solutions to either side of a partially permeable membrane.

Passive transport
Passive transport

Learn how some proteins of the plasma membrane can allow a free movement of molecules in and out the cell.

Active transport (I)
Active transport (I)

Learn how some proteins of the plasma membrane can pump certain substances through the membrane against the concentration gradient with some contribution of energy.

Active transport (II)
Active transport (II)

A more detailed view of the process of active transport through the Na/K pump example.

Endocytosis and exocytosis (I)
Endocytosis and exocytosis (I)

Learn how plasma membrane sacs can help to transport materials in bulk in and out the cell.

Endocytosis and exocytosis (II)
Endocytosis and exocytosis (II)

A more detailed view on the role of the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus and the cell's membrane lipid bilayer in the processes of exocytosis and endocytosis.

Cellular Reproduction
Mitosis (I)
Mitosis (I)

The mitotic process explained through an animated movie. [Some key words: thread, coil, unwind, spindle, fiber].

Mitosis (II)
Mitosis (II)

The central stages of mitosis in a microscopic movie.

Mitosis (III)
Mitosis (III)

Another animated movie on mitosis, this time silent.

Meiosis
Meiosis

The meiotic process explained through an animated movie.

Images