1. The Earth in the Universe
- The Astronomy across time.
- Dimensions and distances in Astronomy.
- Galaxies and clusters. The Milky Way and the Local Group.
- The Stars and the constellations.
- The Solar System: the Sun, the planets, the dwarf planets and the SSSBs.
- The movements of the Earth and their effects.
- The Moon and its phases.
- The eclipses.
- The Ecosphere.
- Matter, quantities, measuring devices and the International System of Units.
- Mass, volume, density and temperature.
- Pure substances, homogeneous mixtures and heterogeneous mixtures.
- Separation of mixtures: sieving, decanting, filtering and distilling.
- The particle theory. Atoms, molecules and crystals.
- Chemical elements. The Periodic Table. Chemical symbols, atomic number, atomic mass.
- Chemical compounds. Molecular formulas and structural representations of molecules.
- The properties of solids, liquids and gases explained through the particle theory.
- The changes of state explained through the particle theory.
- Expansion and contraction by heat explained through the particle theory.
3. The Atmosphere and the Weather
- Origin, evolution and composition of the Earth's atmosphere.
- Structure of the Earth's atmosphere.
- Air pressure.
- Weather: types of clouds, cyclones, anticyclones, wind and precipitations.
4. The Water and the Hydrosphere
- The water in the Earth: occurrence, water bodies, natural aqueous mixtures vs. distilled water, continental waters vs. marine waters.
- The water cycle and its reservoirs.
- Seawater movements.
- The molecule of water.
- The density of water.
- Water and life: the roles of water in living beings and the adaptations of living beings with regards to water.
5. The Earth's Crust, the Rocks and the Minerals
- Structure of the Geosphere.
- Earth's crust: types and composition.
- Minerals: concept, occurrence and properties.
- Rocks: rock cycle, main types and uses.
6. Organization of Living Matter
- Vital functions.
- Bioelements and biomolecules.
- Cells: structure, main types, vital functions, discovery; the cellular theory; unicellular and multicellular beings.
- Levels of organisation in multicellular beings.
- Classification of living beings: morphological criteria vs. kinship; the five kingdoms; taxonomical categories.
7. Prokaryotes, Protozoa, Algae and Fungi
- Prokaryotes: bacteria: occurrence, diversity (ecology, nutrition), cyanbacteria, how they affect human life.
- Protozoa: common features, differences with animals; diversity.
- Algae: common features, differences with plants; diversity.
- Fungi: common features, differences with plants and animals; diversity; classification; anatomy of mushrooms; common mushrooms.
8. The Plant Kingdom
- Common features.
- Main morphological types.
- Main organs.
- Main groups: bryophytes, pterydophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms.
- Nutrition: photosynthesis vs. respiration; role in the carbon cycle.
- Basic interaction mechanisms.
- Reproduction in angiosperms.
9. The Animal Kingdom
- Common features.
- Nutrition: type, systems of organs involved, role in the carbon cycle.
- Basic interaction mechanisms.
- Kinds of reproduction: asexual and sexual.
- Main groups of invertebrates: sponges, cnidarians, annelids, molluscs, arthropods and equinoderms.
- Main groups of vertebrates: fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.
1. Forces and Movements
- Forces: concept and measurement.
- Effects of forces: deformations and changes in movement. Driving force and force of friction.
- The gravitational force; mass vs. weight.
- Changes of position. Speed and distance/time graphs. Acceleration and speed/time graphs.
- Concepts of work and energy.
- Types of material systems with regards to the exchanges of energy and matter.
- Forms of energy: kinetic, gravitational potential, elastic potential, chemical, electric, nuclear, heat, light.
- Transfers and transformations of energy.
- Changes caused by transfers of energy; reversible and irreversible changes.
- Energy in human societies: foods, fossil fuels, nuclear, biomass, aeolian, hydraulic, solar.
- Types of power plants.
3. Heat and Temperature
- Temperature vs. heat.
- Measuring temperature.
- Transmission of heat by conduction; conductors vs. insulators.
- Transmission of heat by convection; convection in the troposphere; convection in the asthenosphere.
- Transmission of heat by radiation.
- Light is the transmission of EM waves.
- Transmission of light: speed and pathway.
- Behaviour of materials with regards to light: transparent, translucent and opaque.
- Reflection and refraction of light.
- Sound is the transmission of mechanical waves.
- The properties of sound: loudness and pitch.
- Measuring sound.
- The transmission of sound: speed, reflections.
6. Chemical Changes
- Physical changes vs. chemical changes.
- Chemical equations. Reactants vs. products.
- Conservation of mass in chemical reactions: the law of constant proportions; balancing chemical equations.
- Energy changes during chemical reactions.
- Simple chemical reactions: metals with non-metals, oxidation, combustion, formation of acids, formation of salts.
7. Cells and Vital Functions
- Structure and function of the main organic and inorganic biomolecules.
- Main types of cells; organelles and cellular regions.
- Cellular nutrition. Anabolism and catabolism. Autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition. Photosynthesis and respiration.
- Cellular interaction: examples from the five kingdoms.
- Cellular reproduction: main general types.
- The vital functions under the scope of the process of natural selection.
8. Nutrition in Living Beings
- The role of nutrition in the living beings.
- Types of nutrition in living beings: heterotrophs vs. autotrophs; phototrophs vs. chemotrophs.
- Animal nutrition (I): the digestive process.
- Animal nutrition (II): the digestive systems.
- Animal nutrition (III): the respiratory mechanisms.
- Animal nutrition (IV): the circulatory systems.
- Animal nutrition (V): the excretory systems.
- Nutrition in fungi.
- Nutrition in plants and algae.
9. Interaction and Coordination in Living Beings
- The role of interaction in the living beings.
- Interaction in animals (I): stimuli and receptors.
- Interaction in animals (II): the need of a coordination process; the nervous systems.
- Interaction in animals (III): effectors.
- Interaction in plants: tropisms and nastics.
10. Reproduction in Living Beings
- The role of reproduction in the living beings.
- Types of reproduction.
- Asexual reproduction in animals. Examples.
- Sexual reproduction in animals. Embryonic development.
- Asexual reproduction in plants. Examples.
- Sexual reproduction in plants. The flower.
11. The Ecosphere and the Ecosystems
- Why is there Life on Earth.
- Biomes: concept, main types on Earth.
- Ecosystems: concept and components.
- Habitats and ecological niches.
- Land ecosystems: main types and features. The formation of soil.
- Aquatic ecosystems: main types and features.
- Anthropogenic ecosystems: main types and features.
- Feeding interactions: producers, consumers and decomposers; food chains and food webs; trophic pyramids.
- Other biotic interactions: interspecific and intraspecific.
- Major human influences in the ecosystems.
1. Organization of Living Matter
- Levels of organisation in living beings: overview.
- Biomolecules: organic and inorganic; main types; their role in the human being.
- Cells: unicellular and multicellular beings; eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells and organisms; components (and their functions) of prokaryotic, plant and animal cells.
- Overview of the cell activity: nutrition, interaction and reproduction.
- Supracellular levels of organisation: thalluses, tissues, organs, systems of organs, apparatuses.
2. Nutrition in Humans
- The meaning of nutrition in living beings: nutrition as an exchange of matter and energy. Humans as heterotrophs.
- Overview of the nutrition in humans; organ systems involved (digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system and excretory system).
- The digestive system anatomy: alimentary canal and accessory glands.
- Stages of the digestive system work: ingestion, digestion (types, stages, enzymes), absorption and elimination.
- Ventilation and respiration as contributing processes to human nutrition.
- The respiratory system anatomy: respiratory pathways, lungs, ribcage.
- The respiratory system physiology: breathing movements, gas exchange, breathing rhythm control.
- Components of the blood: plasma and blood cells (types and functions).
- The cardiovascular system: blood vessels (types and roles); the heart (structure and function); cardiovascular circuits.
- Overview of the lymphatic system.
- The urinary system: its role in homeostasis and waste disposal; structure and function of the kidney; structure and function of the nephrons; composition of the urine as compared to the blood.
- The sweat glands: their role in homeostasis and waste disposal; composition of the sweat as compared to the blood.
- Types of nutrients.
- Types of foods.
- Balanced diets; basal metabolic rates.
- Specific diets: for weight management, for sports, for longevity.
- Food conservation, manipulation and marketing.
- Food production enhancement methods and their consequences: fertilisers, pesticides, herbicides, intensive farming, GM foods.
3. Interaction in Humans
- The meaning of interaction and coordination in multicellular beings.
- Interaction and coordination in humans: stages involved (from stimuli to receptors); organ systems involved (receptors, nervous system, endocrine system and motor apparatus).
- Receptors: internal and external; types according to the stimuli detected, how the eye works; how the ear works; the skin as a receptor.
- The nervous tissue: neurones (and their structure) and glial cells, nerves, nerve impulse, synapse, neurotransmitters.
- The nervous system: structure, main organs (and their functions), types of nerves, types of nervous circuits.
- The endocrine system: endocrine glands, hormones (main kinds and their effects), target organs and target cells, stages and types of endocrine coordination, endocrine glands as effectors.
- Homeostasis: how the human body controls the internal temperature and the levels of fluids and metabolites.
- The motor apparatus: main muscles and bones; the muscles as effectors.
4. Reproduction in Humans
- Overall view of the process of reproduction in humans. Key concepts: gonads, gametes, fertilisation, zygote, embryo, fetus, pregnancy, childbirth.
- Sexual characteristics: primary and secondary. Puberty.
- Structure of the male and female reproductive systems.
- Features of the male and female gametes.
- The menstrual cycle.
- The reproductive process: fertilisation, implantation, fetal development and childbirth.
- Hormonal control of the reproduction related activity (gametogenesis, menstrual cycle and nursing).
- Assisted reproduction.
5. Health and Disease
- Concepts of health and disease.
- General types of diseases: infectious, hereditary, nutritional, chronic, terminal…
- Microbial diseases.
- Infectious diseases occurrence: epidemics and pandemics.
- Fighting infectious diseases: the immune system, vaccination, antibiotics.
- Malnutrition, eating disorders and digestive system related diseases.
- Respiratory system related diseases.
- Circulatory system related diseases.
- Good habits to keep a healthy heart.
- Urinary system related diseases.
- Degenerative nervous diseases.
- Drug addictions.
- Alcohol, tobacco and caffeine.
- Sensory organs related diseases.
- Endocrine system related diseases.
- Sexually transmitted diseases.
- Organic matter vs. inorganic matter. Geochemical elements.
- Crystalline matter vs. amorphous matter. Crystals vs. glasses. Minerals vs. mineraloids.
- Physical properties of the minerals: crystal structure, growth habit, density, hardness, tenacity, cleavage, lustre, colour, streak, others.
- Classification of the minerals. Some important minerals and their physical properties.
- Obtaining minerals. Beds and mines.
- Uses of the minerals. Main metallic ores. Main gemstones.
- Concept of rock and how it relates to the concept of mineral.
- Basic properties of the rocks: structure, mineral composition and age.
- Sedimentary rocks: formation process, occurrence, strata, major types and main examples.
- The formation of coal and petroleum.
- Igneous rocks: formation process and its determining factors, occurrence, major types and main examples.
- Metamorphic rocks: formation process and its determining factors, occurrence, major types and main examples.
- The rock cycle.
- Rocks as resources for human societies.
- Major lithological units in Spain.
1. Cellular Functions
- The biological meaning of the cellular nutrition, reproduction and interaction.
- Cellular nutrition (I): membrane transport of substances.
- Cellular nutrition (II): enzymes.
- Cellular nutrition (III): the metabolism; anabolism and catabolism in autotrophic and heterotrophic beings.
- Cellular reproduction (I): the cell nucleus: DNA, chromatin, chromosomes; haploid and diploid cells.
- Cellular reproduction (II): the cell cycle.
- Cellular reproduction (III): cancer.
- Cellular reproduction (IV): the stages of mitosis; its meaning and role in eukaryotic cells.
- Cellular reproduction (V): meiosis: main events; its meaning and role in eukaryotes' gametogenesis.
- Cellular interaction: biological meaning and examples in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
2. Heredity and Transmission
- Mendelian inheritance. Dominance, codominance and incomplete dominance.
- The Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance. Chromosomes, loci and alleles.
- The inheritance of sex. Heredity linked to sex; some common diseases.
- Polygenic and polyallelic inheritance.
- Mutations. Causes, types and results.
- The Human Genome Project: benefits and concerns.
- Genetic testing: basic techniques, benefits and concerns.
- Genetic manipulation. Basic techniques. Most significant current applications (GM food, gene therapy): benefits and concerns.
- Cloning. Nuclear transfer. Benefits and concerns.
- Stem cells: basic techniques, benefits and concerns.
3. The Evolution of Living Matter
- Ideas on the origin and transmutation of species across time. The advent of the evolutionary thought (common descent and transmutation of species).
- Signs of evolution: adaptive radiation, adaptive convergence, fossil series, geographical distribution of fossils, biochemical similarities.
- Lamarck's mechanism of evolutionary change.
- Darwin and Wallace's mechanism of evolutionary change: evolution by natural selection driven by the environment.
- Genetics and evolution: mutation, recombination, natural selection of alleles and genetic drift.
- Evolution by natural selection in action: some examples.
- Main outcomes of the evolution by natural selection: adaptation, extinction, coevolution and speciation.
4. Natural History of the Earth
- Fossils: types, occurrence, significance.
- Historical ideas on the age of the Earth. Principles and procedures that enable to reconstruct the History of the Earth. Relative and absolute dating techniques.
- The geologic time. Main geochronologic units.
- Main geological and biological events along the history of the Earth.
- The evolution of the human lineage.
5. Plant Physiology
- Plant nutrition: absorption and transport of nutrients, transpiration, photosynthesis, respiration.
- Plant reproduction: the flower, pollination, fertilization, seed dispersal, germination.
- Plant interaction: plant hormones and growth.
6. Dynamics of Ecosystems
- Ecosystems: concept, components. The Ecosphere.
- Ecological factors; conditions and resources. Limiting factors. Tolerance curves. Ecological niche. Habitat.
- Ecological factors in land ecosystems.
- Ecological factors in aquatic ecosystems.
- Ecological succession.
- Biotic interactions: intraspecific and interspecific interactions.
- Population growth. Positive and negative feedback in the interspecific interactions. Plagues and their control.
- Feeding interactions: flow of energy and matter in the ecosystems; producers, consumers and decomposers; food chains and food webs; trophic pyramids.
- Biogeochemical cycles.
- Atmospheric pollution: the greenhouse effect and the global warming; the slimming of the ozone layer; acid precipitations.
- Water consumption: water treatment and sewage treatment.
- Water pollution: fertilisers, industrial pollutants, thermal pollution.
- Other major human influences in the ecosystems.
7. The Earth's Internal Energy
- The internal heat of the Earth as the cause behind the internal geomorphological changes.
- Basic internal geomorphological processes: volcanism and seismicity: elements and main features.
- The Continental Drift theory.
- The tectonic plates: concept, movement, types and main plates.
- Divergent tectonic boundaries: causes, occurrence, examples and geological features.
- Convergent tectonic boundaries: types, causes, occurrence, examples and geological features.
- Transform tectonic boundaries: causes, occurrence, examples and geological features.
- Igneous rocks.
- Metamorphic rocks.
- Geological risks related to the internal activity of the Earth: risk areas; preventing and measuring earthquakes.
8. The Earth's External Energy
- The external geomorphological changes vs. the internal geomorphological changes: paces and examples.
- The Sun and the gravity as the causes behind the external geomorphological agents. The water cycle as an example.
- The external geomorphological processes: weathering, erosion, transport and sedimentation.
- Chemical weathering.
- Geomorphological action of the changes of temperature. Freeze-thaw weathering.
- Geomorphological action of the wind. Occurrence, aeolian landscapes.
- Geomorphological action of the superficial continental waters. Types of superficial continental bodies. The geomorphological processes in the sections of a river. Glacial vs. fluvial landscapes.
- Geomorphological action of the subterranean continental waters. Karstic landscapes.
- Geomorphological action of the sea. Seawater movements. Landscapes carved by the sea movements.
- The formation of soils.
- The formation of sedimentary rocks. Strata.