- The internal heat of the Earth as the cause behind the internal geomorphological changes.
- Basic internal geomorphological processes: volcanism and seismicity: elements and main features.
- The Continental Drift theory.
- The tectonic plates: concept, movement, types and main plates.
- Divergent tectonic boundaries: causes, occurrence, examples and geological features.
- Convergent tectonic boundaries: types, causes, occurrence, examples and geological features.
- Transform tectonic boundaries: causes, occurrence, examples and geological features.
- Igneous rocks.
- Metamorphic rocks.
- Geological risks related to the internal activity of the Earth: risk areas; preventing and measuring earthquakes.
Earthquakes in Geography4kids. What, why and how of the earthquakes.
The science of earthquakes. The basic scientific facts behind the earthquakes.
How earthquakes work. A very comprehensive review on earthquakes, from their causes to their effects. With photos and a video.
Fast Facts about the Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. The speed of the Pacific Plate, the distance Japan's main island was displaced, and other facts and figures about the 11 March 2011 earthquake help to put this event into perspective.
Massive earthquake hits Japan. An 8.9-magnitude earthquake hit off the east coast of Japan on 11 March 2011. The quake, one of the largest in History, triggered a 10 meter tall tsunami that battered Japan's coast, killing thousands and sweeping away cars, homes, buildings, and boats.
Japan quake map. Google Map that shows the magnitude and depth of each recorded Japanese quake since March 11th, 2011. The size of the displayed polygons reflects the magnitude of each individual earthquake and its colour reflects the depth.
Earthquakes in the last 24 hours. Google Map displaying earthquakes around the world that have occurred in the last 24 hours. On first load, the map will animate through the mapped earthquakes, starting from the most recent. You can stop the animation at any time simply by pressing the forward or back buttons. The information window for each quake displays the size of the earthquake and the time of occurrence.
Last 2 Weeks eartquakes worldwide. Google Earth file showing the earthquakes that have taken place in the last two weeks around the world.
Volcanoes in Geography4kids. Types and structure; the lava and its flow.
Volcanoes. An easy to understand on-line book by the U.S. Geological Survey.
The top 10 volcanic eruptions. Photo gallery of some of the biggest blasts in History.
Nyiragongo crater: journey to the center of the world. Stunning photo set taken by a team of scientists who stepped onto the shore of the lava lake boiling in the depths of Nyiragongo Crater, in the Great Lakes region of Africa.
Interactives: Dynamic Earth. Excellent lesson on plate tectonics with interactive activities and good coverage of the following topics: Earth's structure, plate tectonics and plate boundaries.
Structure of the Geosphere in Geography4kids. Learn how the Geosphere is structured by density; know the name of some of its parts and forms.
Tectonic plates in Geography4kids. What are they and how do they behave.
Plate tectonics in About.com. A simple starting point for exploring plate tectonics.
Plate tectonics. A great set of investigations and visualizations at Exploring Earth online book.
The story of plate tectonics. A comprehensive on-line book by the U.S. Geological Survey.
The Earth in 250 million years. Have a look at the state of the continents in 250 my time.
Tectonic plates and plate boundaries. Google Earth's file showing the locations of the plates and their boundaries in the Earth's crust.
Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks
Types of rocks in Geography4kids. Learn the main features of the three types of rocks.
Observe igneous volcanic rocks forming. Visualize how a basalt rock is formed after the cooling of lava at Exploring Earth online book.
Observe metamorphic rocks forming. Visualize how a metamorphic rock is formed after heavy pressure at Exploring Earth online book.