- The internal heat of the Earth as the cause behind the internal geomorphological changes.
- Basic internal geomorphological processes: volcanism and seismicity: elements and main features.
- The Continental Drift theory.
- The tectonic plates: concept, movement, types and main plates.
- Divergent tectonic boundaries: causes, occurrence, examples and geological features.
- Convergent tectonic boundaries: types, causes, occurrence, examples and geological features.
- Transform tectonic boundaries: causes, occurrence, examples and geological features.
- Igneous rocks.
- Metamorphic rocks.
- Geological risks related to the internal activity of the Earth: risk areas; preventing and measuring earthquakes.
What, why and how of the earthquakes.
The basic scientific facts behind the earthquakes.
A very comprehensive review on earthquakes, from their causes to their effects. With photos and a video.
The speed of the Pacific Plate, the distance Japan's main island was displaced, and other facts and figures about the 11 March 2011 earthquake help to put this event into perspective.
An 8.9-magnitude earthquake hit off the east coast of Japan on 11 March 2011. The quake, one of the largest in History, triggered a 10 meter tall tsunami that battered Japan's coast, killing thousands and sweeping away cars, homes, buildings, and boats.
Google Map that shows the magnitude and depth of each recorded Japanese quake since March 11th, 2011. The size of the displayed polygons reflects the magnitude of each individual earthquake and its colour reflects the depth.
Google Map displaying earthquakes around the world that have occurred in the last 24 hours. On first load, the map will animate through the mapped earthquakes, starting from the most recent. You can stop the animation at any time simply by pressing the forward or back buttons. The information window for each quake displays the size of the earthquake and the time of occurrence.
Google Earth file showing the earthquakes that have taken place in the last two weeks around the world.
Types and structure; the lava and its flow.
An easy to understand on-line book by the U.S. Geological Survey.
Photo gallery of some of the biggest blasts in History.
Stunning photo set taken by a team of scientists who stepped onto the shore of the lava lake boiling in the depths of Nyiragongo Crater, in the Great Lakes region of Africa.
Excellent lesson on plate tectonics with interactive activities and good coverage of the following topics: Earth's structure, plate tectonics and plate boundaries.
Learn how the Geosphere is structured by density; know the name of some of its parts and forms.
What are they and how do they behave.
A simple starting point for exploring plate tectonics.
A great set of investigations and visualizations at Exploring Earth online book.
A comprehensive on-line book by the U.S. Geological Survey.
Have a look at the state of the continents in 250 my time.
Google Earth's file showing the locations of the plates and their boundaries in the Earth's crust.
Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks
Learn the main features of the three types of rocks.
Visualize how a basalt rock is formed after the cooling of lava at Exploring Earth online book.
Visualize how a metamorphic rock is formed after heavy pressure at Exploring Earth online book.