- Mendelian inheritance. Dominance, codominance and incomplete dominance.
- The Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance. Chromosomes, loci and alleles.
- The inheritance of sex. Heredity linked to sex; some common diseases.
- Polygenic and polyallelic inheritance.
- Mutations. Causes, types and results.
- The Human Genome Project: benefits and concerns.
- Genetic testing: basic techniques, benefits and concerns.
- Genetic manipulation. Basic techniques. Most significant current applications (GM food, gene therapy): benefits and concerns.
- Cloning. Nuclear transfer. Benefits and concerns.
- Stem cells: basic techniques, benefits and concerns.
Vocabulary: Mendelian Genetics
|Locus (pl. loci)||A place in a chromosome where a gene resides. Each locus contains the encoded information for a trait, such as "colour of the eyes".|
|Allele||Or allelomorph gene. Any of a number of the alternative varieties of a gene that reside in the same locus. Each allele contains the encoded information for a quality or a value of a trait, such as "brown colour of the eyes". All the possible alleles for the same locus form a "family of allelomorph genes".|
|Haploid||Cell or individual or species with one single set of chromosomes, such as bacteria or the human gametes.|
|Diploid||Cell or individual or species with two sets of chromosomes, such as the body cells of humans (and most eukaryotes). Each chromosome of a set is similar to one chromosome of the other set in that they carry exactly the same loci, but they are not identical, as the specific alleles of each locus can be different.|
|Homologous||In diploid individuals, each pair of chromosomes that carry the same loci. Humans have 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes and one pair (the sex chromosomes) which are partially homologous.|
|Homozygous||Or "pure breed". Diploid individuals are homozygous for a locus when the alleles present in that locus are the same in both homologous chromosomes.|
|Heterozygous||Or "hybrid". Diploid individuals are heterozygous for a locus when the alleles present in that locus are different in each homologous chromosome.|
|Dominance||A type of relationship between two different alleles of the same family whereby one allele (said to be the "dominant" one) cancels out the phenotypic effect of the other (said to be "recessive").|
|Codominance||A type of relationship between two different alleles of the same family whereby both alleles express their phenotypic effects without blending. This is the case of the alleles for the "A" and "B" human blood types, whose heterozygosis yields an "AB" type.|
|Incomplete dominance||A type of relationship between two different alleles of the same family whereby the phenotypic effects of each allele are blended in the phenotype. This is the case of the alleles for the red and white colour for the corolla of the flowers of the snapdragon plant, whose heterozygosis yields a pink colour.|
Mind Map: First artificial cellSource
Learn Genetics. From the basics to the hottest current topics: a vast bank of easy to follow learning resources on Genetics.
Interactives: DNA. Excellent full lesson on DNA with interactive activities and good coverage of the following topics: genetics, discovery of DNA, Human Genome Project, Genetic Engineering, and implications and ethics.
DNA matching activity. Simple interactive activity to learn the structure of DNA by matching nucleotides.
Main Concepts of Genetics
You and your genes. An step by step overview on the basic Genetics concepts from BBC Bitesize.
Transcribe and translate a gene. The basic rules for translating a gene into a protein are laid out in the Universal Genetic Code. To see how this works, try it yourself in this interactive activity.
Simple gene expression. Great simple animation showing how genes are expressed by producing proteins.
The Inheritance of Sex
Gender testing of female athletes. Verifying a person's gender may be harder than you think. Find out why…
What have we learned from the Human Genome Project? The Human Genome Project was launched in 1990 to learn how the 3.2 billion base pairs contained in the human genome are ordered. But, what are the benefits of this?
So, do you really want to know? At-home personal genomics kits are available and affordable, but how relevant are the results?
How DNA Evidence Works. In the last few years, DNA evidence has started to play a big part in many nations' criminal justice systems. Learn how DNA evidence is scientifically achieved.
Fighting hunger with flood-tolerant rice. Learn how genetic manipulation of the most eaten food in the world can help over two billion people to survive.
'Alien' genes escape into wild corn. Now it's official: genes from genetically modified corn have escaped into wild varieties in rural Mexico.
Trial begins for HIV gene therapy. Learn how a dead simple technique, based on the use of special DNA-cutting enzymes, could immunize people against HIV.
For the first time, geneticists diagnose disease through whole-genome analysis. A differrent approach to gene sequencing proves cheaper, faster and useful in medicine.
'Artificial life' breakthrough announced by scientists. 20 May 2010: scientists in the US have succeeded in developing the first living cell to be controlled entirely by synthetic DNA.
The 5 current genetic experiments most likely to destroy Humanity. If there's one thing scientists have a knack for, it's turning seemingly innocent things into horrifying specters of terror. Here are some examples.
Cloning. Simple and clear animation showing the main steps to take in animal cloning.
How cloning works. Simple and easy to understand introduction to cloning in plants, animals and humans.
How human cloning will work. Today, after more than a decade since Dolly, human cloning remains in its infancy and under governmental restraints. Nevertheless, science is headed in that direction. Learn how the inevitable human cloning future will be.
Extinct ibex is resurrected by cloning. Learn how clonig techniques could help to regenerate extinct species.
First camel clone born in Dubai. Scientists in Dubai say they have created the world's first cloned camel.
Human embryonic stem cells. Excellent and very comprehensive animation showing everything you need to know about human stem cells.